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4.10.12 SpriteCal3D Mesh Object

‘sprcal3d’ is a 3D mesh plugin which can perform skeletal animation using the Cal3D library.

http://cal3d.sourceforge.net/

Making the Model

This is an example of how to load and view a Cal3d file with the ‘viewmesh’ program.

We are going to load the ‘cally’ model. The data files of this model are part of the standard Cal3d SVN repository, and can be found within the Cal3D project at ‘cal3d/data/cally’. For this example, you should copy the files from this directory to ‘CS/cally’.

Now, make a new file called ‘test.cal3d’ in the ‘CS’ directory with the following contents:

 
<!-- The meshfact name is the CS name used to create
     instances of this object. -->
<meshfact name="test">

<!-- The plugin line specifies the plugin to use to parse
     the succeeding 'params' tag. -->
<plugin>crystalspace.mesh.loader.factory.sprite.cal3d</plugin>

<params>
  <options rotate_x_axis="yes" flip_textures="no" />

  <!-- Path specifies the OS-dependent directory path to
       where all the other files are located. (optional) -->
  <path dir="cally/" />

  <!-- The cally model is much too large. -->
  <scale value="0.01" />

  <!-- Specify cal3d skeleton file used by model. -->
  <skeleton file="cally.csf" />

  <!-- Animations specify the filename to load, and the
       CS-accessible name of this animation.  The type attribute
       is used to distinguish various types of animations.
       Recognized types are "idle", "travel", "cycle",
       "style_cycle", and "action". base_vel specifies the
       speed of translation which should be used when the
       animation is playing alone.  min_vel and max_vel are
       used by the blender to achieve a specified desired
       velocity.  min_random and max_random are interval to be
       used in idle override actions, in seconds.  idle_pct is a
       number between 0 and 100, which is the % probability
       of that action being the override action. -->
  <animation
    file="cally_idle.caf"
    name="stand"
    type="idle"
    base_vel="0"
    min_vel="0"
    max_vel="0"
    min_random="10"
    max_random="30" />
  <animation
    file="cally_walk.caf"
    name="walk"
    type="travel"
    base_vel="2"
    min_vel="0"
    max_vel="3" />
  <animation
    file="cally_strut.caf"
    name="strut"
    type="travel"
    base_vel="2"
    min_vel="0"
    max_vel="3" />
  <animation
    file="cally_jog.caf"
    name="run"
    type="travel"
    base_vel="5"
    min_vel="2"
    max_vel="5" />
  <animation
    file="cally_wave.caf"
    name="greet"
    type="action"
    idle_pct="33" />
  <animation
    file="cally_tornado_kick.caf"
    name="hurt"
    type="action"
    idle_pct="33" />
  <animation
    file="cally_shoot_arrow.caf"
    name="shoot"
    type="action"
    idle_pct="34" />

  <!-- Materials are VFS filenames because they are CS
       materials and not cal3d materials. (optional) We
       can not use the real .xrf files because CS can't load
       that format.  -->
  <material file="/lib/std/green.gif" name="green" />

  <!-- Meshes specify each attachable part of the model.
       The name is the CS-accessible name which will be used
       to select/deselect it for the model.  The material
       specified is the default CS material used by this
       mesh.  -->
  <mesh file="cally_calf_left.cmf"
        name="cally_calf_left"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_calf_right.cmf"
        name="cally_calf_right"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_chest.cmf"
        name="cally_chest"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_foot_left.cmf"
        name="cally_foot_left"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_foot_right.cmf"
        name="cally_foot_right"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_hand_left.cmf"
        name="cally_hand_left"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_hand_right.cmf"
        name="cally_hand_right"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_head.cmf"
        name="cally_head"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_lowerarm_left.cmf"
        name="cally_lowerarm_left"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_lowerarm_right.cmf"
        name="cally_lowerarm_right"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_neck.cmf"
        name="cally_neck"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_pelvis.cmf"
        name="cally_pelvis"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_ponytail.cmf"
        name="cally_ponytail"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_thigh_left.cmf"
        name="cally_thigh_left"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_thigh_right.cmf"
        name="cally_thigh_right"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_upperarm_left.cmf"
        name="cally_upperarm_left"
        material="green" />
  <mesh file="cally_upperarm_right.cmf"
        name="cally_upperarm_right"
        material="green" />

  <!-- The following rotates the model and all animations around
       the Y axis by 180 degrees.  Any axis and angle may be
       specified, and translation may also be specified. -->
  <hardtransform
    rot_axis_x="0"
    rot_axis_y="1"
    rot_axis_z="0"
    rot_angle="180" />
</params>
</meshfact>

Next, run ‘viewmesh’ from the ‘CS’ directory. Click “Load”, select the ‘/this’ directory, and select ‘test.cal3d’. Alternately, to load ‘test.cal3d’ from the command line when you launch ‘viewmesh’:

 
./viewmesh /this/test.cal3d

You should be able to see the ‘cally’ model, completely green.

Creating Your Own Cal3D Mesh

Although explaining how to create your own Cal3D meshes is beyond the scope of this document, there are several web sites and tutorials which describe how to do so. These include:

http://cal3d.sourceforge.net/modeling/tutorial.html

Describes how to create Cal3D meshes in 3D Studio MAX.

http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~joellis/

Describes how to create maps and Cal3D meshes in Blender.

Note: The Crystal Space Cal3D plugin requires a skeleton system to function properly even if the mesh is not going to be animated. If your mesh does not require animation, you still must place at least one bone in the mesh, bind it to a part of the mesh (e.g., the body of a space ship), name it correctly (see http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~joellis/ for more information), and export the skeleton along with the mesh. If you fail to create at least one bone, the ‘sprcal3d’ plugin either will fail to load the model or will otherwise misbehave.

Common ‘viewmesh’ Errors

A good way to test your Cal3d mesh is by loading it into ‘viewmesh’. Since most diagnostic output is directed to the console, it is important to run ‘viewmesh’ from the command line. See above for how to do so, and substitute your ‘.cal3d’ file for ‘test.cal3d’.

Here are several errors which may occur when testing your mesh:

Displaying the Model

We now show you how to edit the ‘simple1’ tutorial (see section Simple Tutorial 1: Basic Setup, World Creation) in order to load the Cal3d model programmatically.

Add the following to ‘simple1.cpp’ just after the call to CreateRoom() in Simple::Application():

 
csRef<iVFS> VFS(csQueryRegistry<iVFS> (object_reg));
VFS->ChDir("/this/");
csRef<iMeshFactoryWrapper> imeshfact(
  loader->LoadMeshObjectFactory("/this/test.cal3d"));
if (imeshfact == 0)
{
  csReport(object_reg, CS_REPORTER_SEVERITY_ERROR,
      "crystalspace.application.simple1",
      "Error loading mesh object factory!");
  return false;
}
csRef<iMeshWrapper> sprite = engine->CreateMeshWrapper(
    imeshfact, "Hulk", room, csVector3(0, 4, 0));

Now, build ‘simple1’, and run it from the ‘CS’ directory. You should be looking right at the model.

Controlling the Model

We can now display the model but we can not set animations, etc. To resolve this, insert the following code into ‘simple1.cpp’ immediately after the code which you inserted to display the model:

 
// Make it do something.
csRef<iSpriteCal3DFactoryState> factstate(
  scfQueryInterface<iSpriteCal3DFactoryState> (
  	imeshfact->GetMeshObjectFactory());
csRef<iSpriteCal3DState> cal3dstate(scfQueryInterface<iSpriteCal3DState> (
  sprite->GetMeshObject()));
cal3dstate->SetAnimCycle("walk", 1.0f);

Now, build ‘simple1’ and run it from the ‘CS’ directory. You should now see the ‘cally’ model “walking”.

Note: See ‘CS/include/imesh/spritecal3d.h’ for more information about the SCF interfaces ‘iSpriteCal3DState’ and ‘iSpriteCal3DFactoryState’. Alternately, consult the Crystal Space API documentation.

Morph Animations

You can add morph target meshes to each mesh. Remember that morph target meshes need to have the same number of vertices and they need to be in the same order. (Do not use the progressive mesh export option!).

 
<mesh file="..." name="..." material="...">
  <morphtarget file="..." name="..."/>
  <morphtarget .../>
  ...
</mesh>

Each of the morph target meshes need to be assigned to a ‘morphanimnation’. Do not add a ‘morphtargetmesh’ to more than one ‘morphanimation’, since the library is not designed for this, and it would cause problems.

 
<morphanimation name="...">
  <morphtarget mesh="meshname" morph="morphname"/>
  <morphtarget .../>
  ...
</morphanimation>

You can test a morph animation if you load the Cal3D file in the ‘viewmesh’ example program.

Furthermore, you can use morph animations programmatically as follows:

In this example, ‘cal3dfactorystate’ is the Cal3D factory state object of type ‘iSpriteCal3DFactoryState’. Using the state object, find the ‘morphanimationid’ with the given name.

 
int morphanimationid =
  cal3dfactorystate->FindMorphAnimationName(morphanimationname);

In this example, ‘cal3dstate’ is the Cal3D state object of type ‘iSpriteCal3DState’. We instruct it to fully blend (1.0f) the morph animation, over a period of (10.0f) ten seconds.

 
cal3dstate->BlendMorphTarget(morphanimationid, 1.0f, 10.0f);

This example completely clears a morph animation, over a period of ten seconds (10.0f).

 
cal3dstate->ClearMorphTarget(morphanimationid, 10.0f);

Sockets

Sockets enable you to attach any mesh object to a triangle. The attached mesh object then follows the triangle. Adding a socket to a Cal3D file (following the mesh tags) can be done as shown here. ‘i’, ‘j’, and ‘k’ should be numbers. They are all indices. The loading order of meshes is maintained, so you can deduce which mesh you are using.

 
<socket name="..." mesh="i" submesh="j" tri="k"/>

You can test a socket if you load the Cal3D file in the ‘viewmesh’ example program.

Furthermore, you can use sockets in code as follows:

In this example, ‘cal3dstate’ is the Cal3D state object of type ‘iSpriteCal3DState’. Here we find a socket with a given name.

 
iSpriteCal3DSocket* socket = cal3dstate->FindSocket(name);

For this example, ‘sprite’ is the ‘iMeshWrapper’ of the Cal3D sprite, and ‘meshwrap’ is the ‘iMeshWrapper’ of the mesh object you want to add. This adds the ‘meshwrap’ as a hierarchical child of ‘sprite’.

 
sprite->GetChildren()->Add(meshwrap);

Here is how you would set a socket's mesh wrapper.

 
socket->SetMeshWrapper(meshwrap);

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